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immunology HW

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1.Describe the differences between naïve and activated/effector T cells in terms of the mechanism via which they enter PLOs and infected tissues, respectively, contrasting the intercellular molecular interactions that take place for each class of cells. 2.Explain the function of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in the migration of naïve and activated/effector and how the therapeutic agent fingolimod interferes with these functions. 3.Explain why transfer of cells, but not serum, from an immune animal to a naïve animal confers immunity to phagocytosed bacteria. Which cells are directly responsible for conferring the specific immunity and which are directly responsible for bacterial eradication? 4.Explain the difference between autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine cytokine action, describing the scenarios and potential consequences of the latter of the three. 5.Explain the importance of cytokine pleiotropism and redundancy. 6.Explain the factors that determine which subset of effector helper T cells emerges when a naïve T cell differentiates 7.Name the cytokine that serves as an autocrine factor to promote proliferation and differentiation of all T cells, and the cytokine that is the primary product of Th1 cells. What is the primary target and functions of the latter and what innate cell produces the same cytokine to assist in microbial eradication? 8.Describe the important intercellular interactions that occur between Th1 cells and their target cells that lead to activation of the latter. . 9.Describe the mechanism of delayed-type hypersensitivity. 10. Describe the cytokines, Igs, and type of helper T cell and leukocyte involved in eradicating helminths and their actions in these immune responses. 11. Describe the cytokines, Igs, and type of helper T cell and leukocyte involved in allergic responses and their actions in these immune responses. 12. Describe the types of therapeutic agents being developed for asthma and other allergic responses and what they target. 13. Describe the type of helper T cell that ensures the proper eradication of leishmaniasis and leprosy. What type of leprosy develops when the wrong T cell response is elicited against Mycobacterium leprae? 14. Describe the primary functions and microbial targets of the Th17 subset of CD4+ T cells and the types of conditions that develop when this subset of T cells is defective and why. 15. Describe the mechanism via which CD8+ CTLs induce apoptosis of its target cells and what molecular changes are the ultimate result of apoptosis. 16. Describe the concept of T cell exhaustion and its role in immune responses.

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